This 8-line summary of textbook physics agrees with 400 years of experiments.

The free physics volume telling more about each line is linked.



No known observation contradicts these eight lines.

The eight lines also determine all equations of physics:

        Lines 1, 2 and 3, together, uniquely determine special and general relativity, cosmology, the Hilbert Lagrangian and Einstein's field equations.

        Lines 1, 2 and 4 to 8, together, uniquely determine quantum field theory and the Lagrangian of the standard model of particle physics, with massive neutrinos.

The eight lines contain physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, geology, astronomy, engineering and computer science.

The eight lines resulted from the work of millions of scientists and engineers.

Galileo started around the year 1600. Line 5 arose around 1860, lines 2 and 4 around 1900, lines 6, 7 and 8 around 1960, and line 3 from 1915 to around 2000.

References on the maximum force are found here.

References on the quantum of action are found here.



Research in fundamental physics has three tasks:

        Are there any phenomena not described by the 8 lines?

        Is there a common explanation for the 8 lines?

        Are there any undiscovered laws or will   F ≤ c4/4G   remain the last law of physics?

Explored mainly in the years from 1990 to 2002, the force limit is the last law of physics discovered so far. The value c4/4G ≈ 3.0 x 1043 N of the local force limit has passed all checks. It allows deducing Einstein's field equations and is the shortest known summary of general relativity.


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