This summary of modern physics in one table is written
to make you wonder, check, and enjoy the beauty of nature.

The summary has been thoroughly tested with experiments and observations
by a huge number of scientists and engineers.

The summary will shorten your study of physics.

### This 9-line summary of textbook physics agrees with all observations. Exactly.

The 9 lines state that general relativity,
the standard model of particle physics with massive mixing Dirac
neutrinos,

and thermodynamics describe all of nature. Yes, all of it.
Yes, exactly. The 9 lines also highlight what we do not know. All of
it.

Details are explained in C. Schiller, From maximum force to physics in 9 lines and
towards relativistic quantum gravity,

published in Zeitschrift
für Naturforschung A 78 (2023), 145-159,
which also contains the ultimate data availability statement.

Talk slides are here. These slides are in German.
A clubhouse podcast on the 9 lines is found here.

**The 9 lines are simple, complete and correct.**

The 9 lines contain *all present knowledge*
about nature, including all textbook physics and *all observations ever
made.*

No known observation and no known measurement contradicts these 9 lines, not even in the last significant digit.

Make a single observation contradicting the 9 lines and you will become famous.

The simplicity of the 9 lines and their vast domain of validity are fascinating.

The 9 lines determine *all equations* of
physics, as the references in the pdf show:

Lines 1, 2 and 3, together, uniquely determine special and general
relativity, cosmology, the Hilbert Lagrangian and Einstein's field
equations. (This is shown in the publications
presented here.)
If you prefer, you can use the black hole mass per length limit
c^{2}/4G instead of the maximum force in line 3.

Line 5, with lines 1 and 4, uniquely implies thermodynamics. (This is shown
in this publication: Entropy **25** (2023) 1511.)

Lines 1, 2, 4, and 6 to 9, together, uniquely determine quantum field theory and the Lagrangian of the standard model of particle physics with massive Dirac neutrinos and PMNS mixing. (The equivalence is shown in publications presented here.) Written out, the Lagrangian of the full standard model is somewhat involved, as Jim Shifflett shows.

The 9 lines show how little math is required to describe nature with high precision.

The 9 lines describe everything that moves - and thus everything that happens in nature.

The 9 lines given above improve the humorous 9 lines found here.

The 9 lines resulted from the work of countless scientists and engineers over 410 years.

Galileo started around the year 1592; line 1 resulted after over 150 years.
Line 5 arose from 1824 to 1929, line 6 arose

around 1860, lines 2 and
4 around 1900, line 3 from 1915 to 2002, and lines 7, 8 and 9 from 1936 to
1973.

The 9 lines imply the lack of *trans-Planckian
effects,* as detailed here.

No such effect has been observed and no such effect will ever be
observed.

Combining the 9 lines implies that twice the Planck
length (4G ℏ/c^{3})^{1/2} is the *smallest length
in nature*.

Its wide-ranging implications, for
unification in particular,
are explored on a separate page.

The 9 lines contain *all natural sciences.*

They contain physics, chemistry, material science, biology, medicine, geology, astronomy and all engineering disciplines.

Again: any single observation contradicting the 9 lines will create a sensation.

*

**Half a million publications about the 9 lines explored two
general questions.**

**I. Are really all observations and "laws"
of motion described by the 9 lines?**

For particle physics,
the answer for the last 50 years has been:
yes, the standard model with massive
neutrinos describes all observations about particles.

For thermodynamics, the answer for the last 100 years has been:
yes,
thermodynamics passes all tests and describes all
observations about entropy.

For gravity, will the principle of maximum force
c^{4}/4G ≈ 3.0 · 10^{43} N
summarizing general relativity
remain the "law" of physics formulated last?
The answer for the last 100 years has been: yes, general relativity
passes all tests and describes all
observations about gravity.

There is one exception: the rotation curves of galaxies and galaxy groups,
at accelerations around 0.1 nm/s^{2} and smaller, remain a puzzle.
This puzzle is often assumed to be solved by dark matter. However, the only known types
of dark matter are black holes and neutrinos, and they do not appear to
explain the rotation curves at low accelerations. The solution to the
puzzle remains unknown. It is a
research topic. The curves might be due to quantum effects.

**II. What is the common origin of all 9 lines?**

In particular, what determines the
*choices* in lines 6 to 9, i.e., the force spectrum, the particle
spectrum, and the fundamental constants?

In other words, the 9 lines are *not unified.* To be so, they
must be shown to follow from *a single line.*

Lines 6 to 9
contain the *only* observations *beyond* textbook
physics. The unknown aspects include the electron mass and the fine structure constant.

This allows a simple
rephrasing: **Where do colours come from?** This is the central
open question about nature.

The literature contains *only two unification approaches* that claim
to deduce all 9 lines. This is not a typo.

Mass media tout additional approaches,
but none of them deduced the lines 6, 7, 8 or 9
– or even parts of them.

Thus, the 9 lines provide an objective
measure of progress towards unification.

The two unification approaches are the octonion model by Tejinder
Singh and the strand tangle model.

This pedagogical
publication shows how the fundamental principle of the strand tangle model
deduces all nine lines from just one.

*

**The 9 lines structure the free Motion Mountain Physics
Textbook**

Summary | Line | Details | Volume about the topic |

1. Nature dislikes squander: | dW = 0 | Action W=∫L dt is minimized in microscopic motion.
Often, L = E _{kin}-E_{pot}; the lines below
fix the two fundamental Lagrangians L. | Vol. I: Fall, Flow and Heat. |

2. Nature dislikes haste: | v ≤ c | Energy speed v is limited by the speed of light c. This invariant implies special relativity and restricts the possible Lagrangians. | Vol. II: Chapters
on Special Relativity. |

3. Nature dislikes excessive force: | F ≤ c^{4}/4G | Force
F is limited by c and the gravitational constant G. This invariant implies
general relativity and, together with lines 1 and 2, fixes its
Lagrangian. (Click for details.) |
Vol. II: Chapters
on General Relativity and Cosmology. |

4. Nature dislikes sloth: | W ≥ ℏ | Action W is never smaller than the quantum of action. This invariant implies quantum theory and restricts possible Lagrangians. (Details here.) | Vol. IV: The Quantum of Change. |

5. Nature dislikes perfect order: | S ≥ k ln2 | Entropy S is never smaller than ln 2 times the Boltzmann constant k. This invariant implies thermodynamics. | Vol. I (and Vol. VI) |

6. Nature conserves electric charges that attract or repel: | U(1) | is the gauge symmetry of electromagnetism. It yields its Lagrangian when combined with lines 1, 2 and 4. | Vol. III: Light, Charges and Brains. |

7. Nature gives nuclei two further types of charges and forces: | SU(3) & broken SU(2) | are the gauge symmetries of the two nuclear interactions, yielding their Lagrangians when combined with lines 1, 2 and 4. | Vol. V: Pleasure, Technology and Stars. |

8. Nature determines the elementary particles: | 18 particles | –
gauge bosons, the Higgs boson, quarks, leptons and the undetected graviton –
with all their quantum numbers, make up everything and, with the
interactions, fix the standard model Lagrangian with massive
neutrinos. | Vol. V: Pleasure, Technology and Stars. |

9. Nature determines the fundamental constants: | Finally, 27 numbers | – dimensions,
cosmological constant, coupling constants, elementary particle mass
ratios, mixing angles – complete the two basic Lagrangians.
They determine all
observations and all colours. | Vol. V: Pleasure, Technology and Stars. |

* *