This summary of modern physics in one table is written to make you wonder, check, and enjoy the beauty of nature.
The summary has been thoroughly tested with experiments and observations by a huge number of scientists and engineers.
The summary will shorten your study of physics.

This 9-line summary of textbook physics agrees with all observations. Exactly.

The 9 lines state that general relativity, the standard model of particle physics with massive mixing Dirac neutrinos,
and thermodynamics describe all of nature. Yes, all of it. Yes, exactly. The 9 lines also highlight what we do not know. All of it.

Details are explained in C. Schiller, From maximum force to physics in 9 lines and towards relativistic quantum gravity,   pdf
published in Zeitschrift für Naturforschung A 78 (2023), 145-159, which also contains the ultimate data availability statement.

Talk slides are here. pdf   These slides are in German. pdf  clubhouse A clubhouse podcast on the 9 lines is found here.

Physics in 9 lines

The 9 lines are simple, complete and correct.

The 9 lines contain all present knowledge about nature, including all textbook physics and all observations ever made.

No known observation and no known measurement contradicts these 9 lines, not even in the last significant digit.

Make a single observation contradicting the 9 lines and you will become famous.

The simplicity of the 9 lines and their vast domain of validity are fascinating.

The 9 lines determine all equations of physics, as the references in the pdf show:

Lines 1, 2 and 3, together, uniquely determine special and general relativity, cosmology, the Hilbert Lagrangian and Einstein's field equations. (This is shown in the publications presented here.) If you prefer, you can use the black hole mass per length limit c2/4G instead of the maximum force in line 3.

Line 5, with lines 1 and 4, uniquely implies thermodynamics. (This is shown in this publication: Entropy 25 (2023) 1511.)

Lines 1, 2, 4, and 6 to 9, together, uniquely determine quantum field theory and the Lagrangian of the standard model of particle physics with massive Dirac neutrinos and PMNS mixing. (The equivalence is shown in publications presented here.) Written out, the Lagrangian of the full standard model is somewhat involved, as Jim Shifflett shows.

The 9 lines show how little math is required to describe nature with high precision.

The 9 lines describe everything that moves - and thus everything that happens in nature.

The 9 lines given above improve the humorous 9 lines found here.

The 9 lines resulted from the work of countless scientists and engineers over 410 years.

Galileo started around the year 1592; line 1 resulted after over 150 years. Line 5 arose from 1824 to 1929, line 6 arose
around 1860, lines 2 and 4 around 1900, line 3 from 1915 to 2002, and lines 7, 8 and 9 from 1936 to 1973.

The 9 lines imply the lack of trans-Planckian effects, as detailed here.

No such effect has been observed and no such effect will ever be observed.
Combining the 9 lines implies that twice the Planck length (4G ℏ/c3)1/2 is the smallest length in nature.
Its wide-ranging implications, for unification in particular, are explored on a separate page.

The 9 lines contain all natural sciences.

They contain physics, chemistry, material science, biology, medicine, geology, astronomy and all engineering disciplines.

Again: any single observation contradicting the 9 lines will create a sensation.


Half a million publications about the 9 lines explored two general questions.

I. Are really all observations and "laws" of motion described by the 9 lines?

For particle physics, the answer for the last 50 years has been: yes, the standard model with massive neutrinos describes all observations about particles.c4
For thermodynamics, the answer for the last 100 years has been: yes, thermodynamics passes all tests and describes all observations about entropy.c4
For gravity, will the principle of maximum force c4/4G ≈ 3.0 · 1043 N summarizing general relativity remain the "law" of physics formulated last? The answer for the last 100 years has been: yes, general relativity passes all tests and describes all observations about gravity.c4
There is one exception: the rotation curves of galaxies and galaxy groups, at accelerations around 0.1 nm/s2 and smaller, remain a puzzle. This puzzle is often assumed to be solved by dark matter.1However, the only known types of dark matter are black holes and neutrinos, and they do not appear to explain the rotation curves at low accelerations. The solution to the puzzle remains unknown. It is a research topic. The curves might be due to quantum effects. c4

II. What is the common origin of all 9 lines?

In particular, what determines the choices in lines 6 to 9, i.e., the force spectrum, the particle spectrum, and the fundamental constants?c4
In other words, the 9 lines are not unified. To be so, they must be shown to follow from a single line.c4
Lines 6 to 9 contain the only observations beyond textbook physics. The unknown aspects include the electron mass and the fine structure constant.c4
This allows a simple rephrasing: Where do colours come from? This is the central open question about nature. c4

The literature contains only two unification approaches that claim to deduce all 9 lines. This is not a typo.c4
Mass media tout additional approaches, but none of them deduced the lines 6, 7, 8 or 9 – or even parts of them.c4
Thus, the 9 lines provide an objective measure of progress towards unification.c4
The two unification approaches are the octonion model by Tejinder Singh and the strand tangle model.c4
This pedagogical publication shows how the fundamental principle of the strand tangle model deduces all nine lines from just one. c4


The 9 lines structure the free Motion Mountain Physics Textbook

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