Strands provide a simple and correct explanation for wave functions.

Talk pdfSlides: From the three Reidemeister moves to the three gauge groups - with consequences for the unification of physics. Talk recording here. The slides and the talk present an emergent model for wave functions explaining gauge interactions and particle physics.

pdfA pedagogical introduction: Testing a model for emergent wave functions explaining gauge interactions and elementary particles.

pdfStrands are special: Uniqueness of the unified description of motion.

●  Visual summary of strand quantum theory
●  Overview of strand quantum theory
●  Testable predictions of strand quantum theory
●  Qubits
●  The fascination of strand quantum theory
●  Similar ideas by other authors
●  Bets and future tests
●  Publications on quantum theory from strands

Visual summary of strand quantum theory

The spinning electron

The spinning electron before blurring. Three strands with Planck radius reproduce spin 1/2, fermion behaviour, electrical charge 3 x 1/3 = 1, chirality, extremely low dipole moment, small mass, vanishing colour charge, correct g-factor, correct antiparticle properties, as well as correct gravitational, electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions.  
wave function


Overview of strand quantum theory

Strands provide a Planck-scale model of nature that includes wave functions:

Wave functions are blurred crossing distributions of fluctuating and spinning tangles of strands of Planck radius.
Elementary fermions are rational (braided) tangles of strands made of two or three strands.
This strand tangle model allows deriving, from a single principle, the Schrödinger equation, the Pauli equation, the Klein-Gordon equation and the Dirac equation. The strand tangle model explains spin 1/2, fermion behaviour, countable particles, particle-antiparticle mixing, and particle mass values.

For example, it is well-known that spinors behave like flags with a sign. (This corresponds to the analogy that vectors behave like arrows.) A tangle of strands indeed behaves like a flag: it has a direction for the pole (the direction in which the tangle core points, the spin orientation) and has an orientation of the flag (the phase, i.e., the orientation of the core around the pointing direction). In addition, the tangle also contains the sign that all spinors contain: positive if the tethers are untangled, negative if they are not.

Several consequences of the strand tangle model go beyond quantum theory. Classifying the possible tangle structures determines the possible elementary particles, their quantum numbers, their mass values and the Higgs mechanism. Classifying tangle deformations with the Reidemeister moves determines the possible gauge interactions, their symmetry groups and their coupling constants. Over 50 precision tests are deduced. All predict the lack of physics beyond the standard model with massive Dirac neutrinos. All tests agree with observations.

The strand tangle model is simple, unique, consistent, complete, and predictive. Strands state that the standard model of particle physics is final and beautiful.

The preprint linked above explains that wave functions evolve deterministically, but emerge as the average of fundamental strand fluctuations. As expected from observations, wave functions are shown to have objective existence. Wave functions have a unique history. They have no hidden variables, despite appearances. Wave functions collapse. The environment, interacting baths and the measurement apparatus play a role. The measurement problem is solved by decoherence.

Also another result of quantum theory remains valid: the universe as a whole has no wave function and no Hilbert space. The "wave function of the universe" is a contradiction in terms: wave functions define the state for observations by outside observers. But there is nothing outside the universe - by definition.


Testable predictions of strand quantum theory

Neutrino masses have normal order.

No physics beyond the standard model or beyond general relativity occurs.

No trans-Planckian effects of any kind occur.

There are no higher (or lower) dimensions.

In nature, there is an upper limit on probability density, given by the inverse smallest volume.

There is no supersymmetry. Dark matter is not made of unknown elementary particles.

Glueballs exist.

Fundamental constants – elementary particle masses, mixing angles, and coupling constants – can and will be calculated.



Strands also visualize qubits. The preprint introduces the topic.

Strands provide a way to visualize the statement by Zizzi about nature: it from qubit. Indeed, everything arises from qubits; more precisely, everything arises from crossing switches of strands.


The fascination of strand quantum theory

Strand tangles are skeletons of wave functions. Wave functions are crossing densities.

Measurement and collapse are triggered by baths; collapse time is decoherence time and is short but measurable, in agreement with data.

Every electron, every atom, every basketball and every person is tethered.

Everything is connected to everything else.

The universe consists of a single strand.

Strands imply that `every thing' is made of  `everything'.

Strands explain the fine structure constant and the electron mass. Thus they explain all colours around us.

Because strands have Planck radius, they are not hidden variables.


Similar ideas by other authors

So far, apart from the work by Battey-Pratt and Racey (and Dirac's lecture demonstration), no similar ideas are found in the literature. Not even the researchers working on emergent quantum theory published anything similar. Several additional research papers that are close to the strand tangle model are cited in the pdf linked above.

Studying the complement of strands, i.e., the evolution of the space between them, could provide an equivalent alternative, as done by Asselmeyer-Maluga. However, his model has not yet achieved a classification of particles or interactions, nor deduced a model for wave functions – though this should be possible.


Tests and bets

In science, every statement must be checked continuously, again and again, against observations. This is ongoing. A sweeping statement like "strands crossings explain wave functions" must be checked with particular care. If you have a counterargument or notice a missing issue, just send a note to the author.

The numerous experimental predictions, tests and proposed bets (click here) are extremely precise. They cover all domains of nature and of physics. So far, all tests for the strand model are positive. Finding a single observation falsifying a single prediction of the strand conjecture wins the bet.

Finding any alternative, correct and inequivalent description of wave functions – or of nature – wins the bet as well.

A provoking consequence: all approaches claiming that space is continuous and all approaches claiming that space is discrete are mistaken.

It might be that the similarities between strand gravity and strand particle entanglement can be used to deduce connections between gravity and entanglement.

An interesting aspect is the following: experiments with tethered asymmetric bodies in slowly flowing liquids or gases should yield estimates for particle mass values.

In the past, models for quantum theory have not been successful. The whole topic has a mixed reputation. But if one does not risk making a fool of oneself, there is no progress. Therefore: enjoy exploring strands and enjoy exploring their relation to quantum theory.



Publications on quantum theory from strands

This simple introduction for mathematicians, physicists and physics students explains the origin of wave functions and the gauge groups U(1), SU(2) and SU(3): C. Schiller, On the relation between the three Reidemeister moves and the three gauge groups International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics (2023) DOI: 10.1142/S0219887824500579. Download the preprint here.   pdf


The exploration of quantum electrodynamics also introduces wave functions arising from strands: C. Schiller, Testing a conjecture on quantum electrodynamics, Journal of Geometry and Physics 178 (2022) 104551. Download the preprint here.   pdf


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