Nature has its own book of records

Every quantity in nature is limited. This page presents the most famous of these limits. These extreme values cannot be exceeded: they are nature's record values.

In fact, almost every physical quantity has two limits: a corrected Planck limit and a cosmological limit.

In the domain of quantum gravity, when the limits include all three constants c, ℏ and G, the Planck limits cannot be achieved or even approached. In those cases, there also exist real experimental records.

This is a further page in the collection of true statements about nature and physics that merit to be more widely known. `True' means checked by experiments. References to such experiments can be found via Google Scholar. A preprint collecting many of the recent references is given at the end.

Corrected Planck limits

The limits are called corrected because they contain 4G instead of G.

The above limits are absolute. They are extremes, valid for every physical system (or for single elementary particles, as mentioned). These extreme bounds cannot be exceeded.

The above extremes are valid across the universe, at all times, across nature, across all sciences.

Note that the above table of correcetd Planck limits is not complete. There is a corrected Planck limit for almost every variable.

Electric charge is not in the list. Charge is quantized, but not limited. Still, charge quantization leads to limits for electromagnetic fields.

The limits restrict what can happen, what can be, and what can be achieved.

The limits are invariant: they are the same for every observer.

The limits define modern physics, as shown on the page on Bronshtein's limit cube - when they are added to the principle of least action. In that case, the limits describe everything that can happen.

When the limits are used to define physics, only a few are needed, as shown on the page summarizing physics in 9 lines.

The limits of special relativity, of general relativity and of quantum theory can be realized by physical systems. The limits of quantum gravity cannot.

No known physical system approaches the limits of quantum gravity – i.e., the limits containing ℏ, c and 4G – by several orders of magnitude. It is expected that this will never be possible.

Find an unknown limit - and publish it.

Find any exception to any corrected Planck limit - and become famous.

Cosmological limits

Every quantity in nature has a second, opposite limit.

These cosmological limits are valid for the present universe.

Most cosmological limits change over time.

Have fun completing the list. Some missing limits are still unpublished.


Everything in nature is limited. Nothing in nature is infinitely large or infinitely small. One of the two limits is always a corrected Planck limit.


More detailed arguments and references are found in C. Schiller, From maximum force to physics in 9 lines and towards relativistic quantum gravity,   pdf
published in Zeitschrift für Naturforschung A (2022).

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