Nature has its own book of records

Every quantity in nature is limited. This page presents the most famous limits. These extreme values cannot be exceeded: they are nature's record values.

In fact, every physical quantity has two limits: a corrected Planck limit and a cosmological limit.

In the domain of quantum gravity, when the limits include c, ℏ and G, the Planck limits cannot be achieved at all. In those cases, there are also real experimental records, as shown below.

This is a further page in the collection of true statements about nature and physics that merit to be more widely known. `True' means checked by experiments. References to such experiments can be found via Google Scholar. A preprint collecting many of the recent references is given at the end.

Corrected Planck limits

The limits are called corrected because they contain 4G instead of G.

The above limits are absolute. They are extremes, valid for every physical system. These extreme bounds cannot be exceeded.

These extremes are valid across the universe, at all times, across nature, across all sciences.

Note that the above table of correcetd Planck limits is not complete. There is a corrected Planck limit for almost every variable.

Electric charge is not in the list. Charge is quantized, but not limited. Still, charge quantization leads to limits for electromagnetic fields.

Find any exception to any corrected Planck limit - and become famous.

The limits restrict what can happen, what can be, and what can be achieved.

The limits are invariant: they are the same for every observer.

The limits define modern physics, as shown on the page on Bronshtein's limit cube - when they are added to the principle of least action. In that case, the limits describe everything that can happen.

When the limits are used to define physics, only a few are needed, as shown on the page summarizing physics in 9 lines.

The limits of special relativity, of general relativity and of quantum theory can be realized by physical systems. The limits of quantum gravity cannot.

No known physical system approaches the limits of quantum gravity – i.e., the limits containing ℏ, c and 4G – by several orders of magnitude. It is expected that this will never be possible.

Find an unknown limit - and publish it.

Cosmological limits

Every quantity in nature has a second, opposite limit.

These cosmological limits are valid in the universe.

The cosmological limits change over time.

Have fun completing the list. Some limits are unpublished.


Everything is limited. Nothing in nature is infinitely large or infinitely small. One of the two limits is always a corrected Planck limit.


Many arguments and references are found in, C. Schiller, From maximum force to physics in 9 lines and relativistic quantum gravity.   pdf

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