• Quantum electrodynamics from strands

• Gravitation from strands

• The standard model from strands

• Background

• Volume VI of Motion Mountain

### A conjecture on the complete description of nature

When we look at the starry sky, we admire the vast space, the coloured twinkling stars, and the deep blackness. The strand conjecture proposes an explanation for their origin, their properties and their motion. The foundations of what we find around us – particles, space, horizons and colours of everything we see – are explained.

**Unification.** The paper argues that all of modern physics
arises, directly and inevitably, from the Planck scale. It was published in
*Physics of Particles and Nuclei,* volume 50 (2019) pages 259-299,
https://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1063779619030055.

At present, the clearest
introduction to the strand conjecture might well be the preprint
on QED that is found below.

*

**Tests.** The paper and the following preprints
about the strand conjecture provide numerous experimental predictions about
electric dipole moments, Planck limits, parity violation, additional
elementary particles, graviton detection, torsion, new forces,
supersymmetry, grand unification, anomalous magnetic moments, glueballs,
scalar mesons, neutrino masses, effects beyond the standard model, and dark
matter. A longer list of tests is given here.

*

**Naming.** When is a theory "of
everything"? Of course, any such theory has to agree with all observations,
experiments and measurements. Of course, such a theory has to agree with
quantum field theory, the standard model, general relativity and cosmology
– at least under usual conditions. And of course, such a theory has
to make testable predictions. But above all, such a theory must
explain what is unexplained so far. This includes explaining the particle
spectrum and the four interactions, explaining the mass values and mixing
angles of all elementary particles, and explaining the value of the
coupling constants of the three gauge interactions, ab initio. If
your favourite theory does not, it is not "of everything" .

### Quantum electrodynamics from strands

Extension 1. This preprint tells how strands induce electricity, magnetism and optics.

**Colours and beauty.** The strand conjecture
shows how the tangle model leads to quantum electrodynamics. Numerous
tests for the conjecture are given. In addition, the strand conjecture
appears to allow approaching two old challenges: how to calculate the fine
structure constant and how to calculate the lepton masses – both from
first principles. The preprint uses the tangle model of particle to deduce
estimates, as well as tests of the conjecture. The fine structure constant
1/137.036(1) and the lepton masses, in particular the electron mass, are
the ingredients that determine all colours, tastes, smells, sounds and most
shapes around us. In other words: it is argued that tangles of strands
generate all beauty in nature.

### Gravitation from strands

Extension 2. This preprint tells how strands induce gravity – with predictions and experimental tests.

**50 000 solar masses per second.** Strands
provide a microscopic model for space and horizons. This allows to derive
the field equations of general relativity. Over fifty tests of the strand
conjecture are given. For example, strands confirm that gravitation – like
nature itself – has a mass to length limit c^{2}/4G, a mass
flow limit c^{3}/4G, a momentum flow or force limit
c^{4}/4G and a power limit c^{5}/4G. The limits are given
by one quarter Planck mass per Planck time, or 50 756 solar masses per
second (times c^{-1},
times c or times c^{2}). No observation ever reached these limits.

Any complete description of nature has to be somewhat crazy. To satisfy this requirement, the following animation, made by Jason Hise, shows how black hole rotation is modelled in the strand conjecture. With a bit of imagination you can determine the location of the ergosphere.

### The standard model from strands

Extension 3. This preprint will make you enjoy the standard model.

**Simplicity, unity, elegance.**
It is regularly claimed that the standard model is complex, incomplete or
even ugly. The strand conjecture argues the exact opposite:
all of particle physics is due to
tangled strands fluctuating at the Planck scale. A *single*
fundamental process appears to explain the principle of least action, the
observed interactions and their symmetry groups, the observed elementary
particle spectrum, and the constants describing them. This explanation
agrees with all experiments. In addition, the explanation of the standard
model using strands is almost incredibly simple, complete,
elegant, surprisingly hard to vary, and truly beautiful.

Images of the three conjectured neutrino tangles:

Note the similarity of the electron neutrino tangle with three loose
strands. This is one reason for its low mass value.

Images of the conjectured tangles for the electron, the muon and the tau:

These tangles, together with the quark tangles and the elementary boson
tangles, appear to reproduce all Feynman diagrams of the standard model.
(Can you help producing 3d pictures that can be rotated by a html viewer?)

### Background

**Technicalities.** The strand conjecture
reproduces the Lagrangians of the standard model and general relativity,
explains the number of generations and the particle spectrum,
deduces all Feynman diagrams and propagators,
explains the gauge groups U(1), SU(2) and SU(3),
explains the fundamental constants ab initio,
solves the hierarchy problem,
explains neutrino masses without a see-saw mechanism,
solves the strong CP problem,
predicts the validity of the standard model and of general relativity
up to the Planck scale without any intermediate energy scale,
implies that the weak interaction violates parity maximally,
explains the equality of proton and positron charge,
has no problems with anomalies,
predicts no issues with baryogenesis,
has no grand unification,
has no supersymmetry,
has no additional spatial dimensions,
has no inflation, no inflaton and no dilaton,
solves a number of black hole and singularity issues,
implies gravitational waves,
has no dark matter particles,
has a naturally small, if not vanishing cosmological constant,
solves various problems about gauge theories,
answers Hilbert's sixth problem,
and explains the principle of least action.

*

**Betting.** The description with strands is called a
*conjecture* throughout. But in fact, it is more than that: the
strand conjecture is a ** bet** on the correct
description of nature. The precise formulation of the bet is given here. Any challenge of the "bet"
that supports our tiny non-profit will be considered.

*

**Objections.**
It is hard to get accustomed to the idea that every particle has tethers.
Feel free to contribute issues, criticisms or suggestions to the wiki found
at sites.google.com/site/motionmountainsuggestions or
send them via email to christoph@motionmountain.net.

*

**Blog.**
The blog on research about fundamental physics
and tangles of strands tells more about general ideas, past mistakes,
encountered difficulties, and more.

*

**Motivation.**
An important motivation has always
been the support for the ailing T-shirt industry.

*

**On gravitation,** see also this paper: C. Schiller,
General relativity and cosmology derived from principle of maximum power or
force, International Journal of Theoretical Physics, vol. 44 (2005) pp.
1629-1647.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10773-005-4835-2.

### Volume VI of Motion Mountain

**History.** A more extensive, more passionate, but also
older and less precise presentation is the original text on the strand
model. It was written as a *research* volume that continues the
adventure of the five *textbook* volumes. The first tangle
assignments for the Higgs, for the gluons and for leptons appear to have
been *wrong*. The present edition has been updated with most results
from the above preprints, but it also mentions the errors of the past:

Here is a preview of the research volume:

It can also be found at https://www.scribd.com/document/11598480.