Welcome to Motion Mountain Research. The
grey-coloured pages propose a complete description of
fundamental physics, called the *strand conjecture*, and compare its
consequences and predictions with experiment.

2021 Summary:

**1. All observations and all equations** **of fundamental physics
follow** **from Dirac's trick at** **the Planck scale.** This
applies to the complete Lagrangian of the standard model with Dirac's
equation, Maxwell's equations, the nuclear interactions and the particle
spectrum, as well as to Einstein's field equations of general relativity
with their Hilbert Lagrangian.

**2. All fundamental constants**
**follow from Dirac's trick at** **the Planck scale:** coupling
constants, particle masses and mixing angles.

*

The strand conjecture is a side result of the free Motion Mountain physics book series, in particular of Dirac's spin 1/2 demonstration, of the principle of maximum force, and of the strand explanation of back hole entropy. Feel free to write if you want to bet about the experimental predictions. Click here for an evaluation of your chances. If you want to help with animations similar to those included here, write to christoph@motionmountain.net.

• The standard model from strands

• Gravitation from strands

• Quantum electrodynamics from strands

• Cosmology from strands

• Physics background

• Volume VI of Motion Mountain

### The strand conjecture about the complete description of nature

**Beautiful.** When we look at the starry sky, we admire
the vast space, the coloured twinkling stars, and the deep blackness. The
strand conjecture proposes an explanation for their origin, their
properties and their motion. The foundations of what we find around us
– particles, space, horizons and colours of everything we see –
are explained.

**Testable.** The paper argues that all of modern physics
arises, directly and inevitably, from the Planck scale.
Below, the more pedagogical paper and preprints deduce
even more experimental predictions and tests.
A detailed list of tests is also found on the bet
page, by clicking here.

### The standard model from strands

**Simple.** The strand conjecture starts with deducing
Dirac’s equation from Dirac’s trick for tangles. Then, tangle
classification yields the particle spectrum. The Reidemeister moves yield
the particle interactions. Working out the details gives particle physics,
with no additions, no modifications and no omissions.

**Elegant.** It is regularly claimed that the standard
model is complex, incomplete or
even ugly. The strand conjecture argues the exact opposite: all of
particle physics is due to tangled strands fluctuating at the Planck scale.
A *single* fundamental process appears to explain the principle of least
action, the Dirac equation, the observed interaction spectrum, the observed
gauge symmetry groups, the observed elementary particle spectrum, and the
fundamental constants (masses, mixing angles, and coupling constants)
describing them. The Lagrangian of the standard model arises, without
modifications. Over 100 additional tests and predictions
about particle physics beyond the standard model are deduced. They agree
with all experiments. So far, no other approach in the research literature
appears to make (almost) any of these predictions. Indeed, it appears that the
explanation of the standard model using tangled strands is consistent,
correct, hard to vary, and complete.

### Gravitation from strands

**50 000 solar masses per second.** Strands provide a
microscopic model for space and horizons. This allows to derive the field
equations of general relativity. In addition, a complete (and somewhat
long) list of over 90 tests of the strand conjecture in the domain of
gravitation is deduced from a single principle. All tests agree with
observations so far.

For example, strands confirm that gravitation – like nature itself
– has a mass to length limit c^{2}/4G, a mass flow limit
c^{3}/4G, a momentum flow or force limit c^{4}/4G and a
luminosity or power limit c^{5}/4G. The limits are given by one
quarter Planck mass per Planck time, or 50 756 solar masses per second
(times c^{-1}, times c or times c^{2}). No observation
ever exceeded these limits.

But above all, strands also explain the gravitational mass of elementary particles and provides upper and lower limits for the mass values.

Any complete description of nature has to be *strange*. To satisfy
this requirement, the following animation, made by Jason Hise, shows how
black hole rotation is modelled in the strand conjecture. (The flattening
of the horizon is not shown.) With a bit of
imagination you can determine the location of the ergosphere.

### Quantum electrodynamics from strands

**Colours and beauty.** The strand conjecture shows how the
tangle model leads to quantum electrodynamics. Over 40 tests for
the conjecture are given. So far, they are all positive. In particular,
the strand conjecture appears to allow approaching two old challenges: how
to calculate the fine structure constant and how to calculate the lepton
masses – both from first principles. The preprint uses the tangle
model of particles to deduce estimates. The fine structure constant
1/137.036(1) and the lepton masses, in particular the electron mass, are
the ingredients that determine all colours, tastes, smells, sounds and most
shapes around us. In other words: it is argued that tangles of strands
generate all beauty in nature.

**The spinning electron tangle**. Strands are not
observable, only crossing switches are. Every chiral crossing produces an
electric charge e/3. Jason Hise produced an animation for the spinning
electron (though neither the tangle nor the strands should be
flattened):

### Cosmology from strands

A preprint on cosmology will appear here in future, to complete the
topic. In the strand conjecture, the universe consists of a single closed
strand that forms the cosmological horizon and also the particles and the
space inside it. Over time, this strand gets more and more tangled. This
description reproduces usual cosmology and leads to numerous tests and
predictions. A few ones beforehand: the universe expands; nothing –
no matter, no radiation and no space – exists beyond the cosmological
horizon; the luminosity of the universe is always limited by
c^{5}/4G; dark matter is made of known matter or black holes or
both; dark energy is not due to unknown or additional fields; the
cosmological constant is small and positive; inflation did not occur; there
are no cosmic strings, no higher dimensions and no non-trivial topology;
there is no bouncing universe; there is just *one* universe.

### Physics background

**On gravitation,** ideas from the following paper were
used: C. Schiller, General relativity and cosmology derived from principle
of maximum power or force, *International Journal of Theoretical
Physics* **44** (2005) 1629–1647.
Download for free at doi.org/10.1007/s10773-005-4835-2.
Read it online for free at rdcu.be/cdG3C.

*

**On Planck limits,** see: C. Schiller, Simple
derivation of minimum length, minimum dipole moment and lack of space–time
continuity, *International Journal of Theoretical Physics* **45**
(2006) 213–227.
Download it at doi.org/10.1007/s10773-005-9018-7.
Read it online for free at rdcu.be/cdG3E.

*

**Technicalities.** The strand conjecture
reproduces the Lagrangians of the standard model and general relativity,
explains the number of generations and the particle spectrum,
deduces all Feynman diagrams and propagators,
explains the gauge groups U(1), SU(2) and SU(3),
explains the fundamental constants ab initio,
solves the hierarchy problem,
explains neutrino masses without a see-saw mechanism,
solves the strong CP problem,
predicts the validity of the standard model and of general relativity
up to the Planck scale without any intermediate energy scale,
implies that the weak interaction violates parity maximally,
explains the equality of proton and positron charge,
has no problems with anomalies,
predicts no issues with baryogenesis,
has no grand unification,
has no supersymmetry,
has no additional spatial dimensions,
has no inflation, no inflaton and no dilaton,
solves a number of black hole and singularity issues,
implies gravitational waves,
has no dark matter particles,
has a naturally small cosmological constant,
solves various problems about gauge theories,
answers Hilbert's sixth problem,
and explains the principle of least action.

*

**Particle tangles.**
Images of the three conjectured neutrino tangles:

Note the similarity of the electron neutrino tangle with three loose
strands. This is one reason for its low mass value.

Images of the conjectured tangles for the electron, the muon and the tau:

These tangles, together with the quark tangles and the elementary boson
tangles, appear to reproduce all Feynman diagrams of the standard model.
(Can you help producing 3d pictures that can be rotated by a html viewer?)

*

**Blog.**
The blog on research about fundamental physics
and tangles of strands tells more about general ideas, past mistakes,
objections, encountered difficulties, and progress.

*

**T-shirt.**
An important motivation has always
been the support for the ailing physics T-shirt industry.
Since decades, it has been desperate for new designs.

### Volume VI of Motion Mountain

**History.** A more extensive, more passionate, but also
older and less precise presentation is the original text on the strand
model. It was written as a *research* volume that continues the
adventure of the five *textbook* volumes.
The present edition has been updated with most results
from the above preprints, and it also presents and corrects the errors of the past:

Here is a preview:

It can also be found at https://www.scribd.com/document/11598480.