Welcome to Motion Mountain Research. The
grey-coloured pages propose a complete description of motion
– and of
fundamental physics – called the *strand conjecture*, and compare its
consequences and predictions with experiments. So far, there are no
disagreements.

For an introduction to strands in 12 simple steps, see here.

For the comparison with experiment, click here.

For commented scientific publications and preprints, read further.

● The strand conjecture about the complete
description of nature

● The standard model of particle
physics deduced from strands

● Gravitation and
quantum gravity deduced from strands

● Quantum electrodynamics deduced from strands

● Cosmology deduced from strands

● Quantum chromodynamics deduced from strands

● Physics background –
maximum force, maximum power, and more

● Volume VI of Motion Mountain

### Summary

1. It appears that all observations and all equations of fundamental
physics follow from Dirac's trick at the Planck scale. The complete
standard model of particle physics and full general relativity can be
deduced. This includes Dirac's equation, Maxwell's equations, the nuclear
interactions, the gauge groups, the particle spectrum, the full standard
model Lagrangian, Einstein's field equations, the Hilbert Lagrangian, and
cosmology. All consequences agree with all data.

2. All fundamental
constants – number of dimensions, coupling constants, particle masses
and mixing angles – appear to follow from Dirac's trick at the Planck
scale. In particular, nothing remains unexplained in fundamental physics.

*

The strand conjecture is a side result of the free Motion Mountain physics book series, in particular of Dirac's spin 1/2 demonstration, of the principle of maximum force, and of the strand explanation of back hole entropy. Feel free to write, even if you only want to bet about the experimental predictions. Click here for an evaluation of your chances. If you want to help with animations similar to those included here, write to christoph@motionmountain.net.

### The strand conjecture about the complete description of nature

**Beautiful.** When we look at the starry sky, we admire
the vast space, the coloured twinkling stars, and the deep blackness. The
strand conjecture proposes an explanation for their origin, their
properties and their motion. The foundations of what we find around us
– particles, space, horizons and colours of everything we see –
are explained.

**C. Schiller, A conjecture on deducing
general** ** relativity and the standard model**
**with its fundamental constants from** **rational
tangles of strands,** *Physics of Particles and Nuclei*
**50** (2019) 259–299. Download the published paper at
dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1063779619030055. Read the published paper online for free at rdcu.be/cdCK7.

Download the
preprint pdf here, with films.

**Testable.** The paper argues that all of modern physics
arises, directly and inevitably, from the Planck scale.
Below, the more pedagogical papers and preprints deduce
additional experimental predictions and tests.
A detailed list of tests is also found on the bet
page, by clicking here.

### The standard model of particle physics deduced from strands

**Simple.** The strand conjecture starts with deducing
Dirac’s equation from Dirac’s trick for tangles. Then, tangle
classification yields the particle spectrum. The Reidemeister moves yield
the particle interactions. Working out the details gives particle physics,
with no additions, no modifications and no omissions.

**C. Schiller, Testing a conjecture on the origin
of the standard model,** *European Physical Journal Plus*
**136** (2021) 79. Download it at
doi.org/10.1140/epjp/s13360-020-01046-8.
Read the published paper online for free
at rdcu.be/cdwSI.

Download the preprint pdf here.

**Elegant.** It is regularly claimed that the standard
model is complex, incomplete or even ugly. The strand conjecture argues
the exact opposite: all of particle physics is due to tangled strands
fluctuating at the Planck scale. A *single* fundamental process
appears to explain the principle of least action, the Dirac equation, the
observed interaction spectrum, the observed gauge symmetry groups, the
observed elementary particle spectrum, and the fundamental constants
(masses, mixing angles, and coupling constants) describing them. The
Lagrangian of the standard model arises, without modifications. Over 100
additional tests and predictions about particle physics beyond the standard
model are deduced. They agree with all experiments. So far, no other
approach in the research literature appears to make (almost) any of these
predictions. Indeed, it appears that the explanation of the standard model
using tangled strands is consistent, correct, hard to vary, and complete.

### Gravitation and quantum gravity deduced from strands

**C. Schiller, Testing a conjecture on
the** **origin of space, gravity and mass**, to appear
in 2021 in *Indian Journal of Physics*. Read the published paper online for free at
rdcu.be/czpom.

Download the preprint pdf
here.

**50 700 solar masses per second.** Strands provide a
microscopic model for space and horizons. This allows to derive the field
equations of general relativity and a model for quantum gravity. Numerous
tests of the strand conjecture in the domain of gravitation and quantum
gravity are deduced, starting from a single principle. All tests agree
with observations so far.

For example, strands confirm that gravitation – like nature itself
– has a power or luminosity limit c^{5}/4G,
a momentum flow or force limit c^{4}/4G,
a mass flow limit c^{3}/4G,
and a mass to length limit c^{2}/4G.
The limits are given by one
quarter Planck mass per Planck time, or 50 756 solar masses per second
(times c^{-1}, times c, or times c^{2}). No observation
ever exceeded these limits.

Many predictions about gravitons and quantum gravity are deduced, including a direct derivation of black hole entropy from strands. Above all, strands also explain the gravitational masses of elementary particles and provide upper and lower limits for the mass values. All predictions agree with data.

Any complete description of nature has to be *strange*. To satisfy
this requirement for gravitation, the following animation, made by Jason
Hise, shows how black hole rotation is modelled in the strand conjecture.
(The flattening of the black and white horizon is not shown.) With a bit
of imagination you can determine the location of the ergosphere.

### Quantum electrodynamics deduced from strands

**C. Schiller, Testing a conjecture on quantum
electrodynamics** (preprint).

**Colours and beauty.** The strand conjecture shows how the
tangle model leads to quantum electrodynamics. Over 40 tests for
the conjecture are given. So far, they are all positive. In particular,
the strand conjecture appears to allow approaching two old challenges: how
to calculate the fine structure constant and how to calculate the lepton
masses – both from first principles. The preprint uses the tangle
model of particles to deduce estimates. The fine structure constant
1/137.036(1) and the lepton masses, in particular the electron mass, are
the ingredients that determine all colours, tastes, smells, sounds and most
shapes around us. In other words: it is argued that tangles of strands
generate all beauty in nature.

**The spin of leptons**. Tangles of strands reproduce
spin. Leptons consist of three strands. The animation by Jason Hise gives
an impression.

**The spinning electron tangle**. Strands are not
observable, only crossing switches are. Every chiral crossing produces an
electric charge e/3. Jason Hise produced an animation for the spinning
electron (though neither the tangle nor the strands should be
flattened):

### Cosmology deduced from strands

**The universe.** A preprint on cosmology will
complete the topic. In the strand conjecture, the universe consists of a
single closed strand that forms the cosmological horizon and also the
particles and the space inside it. Over time, this strand gets more and
more tangled. (As one reader said: the universe plays cat's cradle.) This
description reproduces usual cosmology and leads to numerous tests and
predictions. A few ones beforehand: the universe expands; nothing –
no matter, no radiation and no space – exists beyond the cosmological
horizon; inflation did not occur; there are no cosmic strings and no higher
dimensions; there is no non-trivial topology; there is no bouncing
universe; there is just *one* universe; the luminosity of the universe
is always limited by c^{5}/4G; dark matter made of unknown
elementary particles does not exist; if dark matter exists at all, it is
made of known matter or black holes or both; dark energy, or vacuum energy,
does exist and is a natural consequence of strands; the density of vacuum
energy, the cosmological constant, is positive and small.

The strand description of cosmology is promising. However, calculating
the vacuum energy density and its time dependence is a challenge.
Clarifying the relation to modified gravity and to the baryonic
Tully-Fisher relation is a challenge as well. The latter challenge is
probably solved when the former one is.

### Quantum chromodynamics deduced from strands

**Quarks and nuclei.** A preprint on the strong interaction
will appear here in the future. The strand conjecture shows how the tangle
model leads to the strong interaction, the quark model, flux tubes,
confinement and asymptotic freedom. The lack of glueballs is predicted.
Many other tests for the tangle model are deduced, including the lack of
new generations and the lack of deviations from QCD. So far, no test fails.
In particular, the strand conjecture allows estimating the strong coupling
constant, the mixing angles and the quark masses – all ab initio.

**The spinning tangle of the down quark.**
Jason Hise also produced an animation for this case:

Indeed, the tangle model is peculiar – to say the least.

### Physics background – maximum force, maximum power, and more

**Maximum force and power.** The strand model is based
on a result that is older and unrelated to strands: the
maximum force in nature with the value c^{4}/4G.

For more physics details and publicationssee the dedicated web page on maximum force and maximum power.

*

**Technicalities.** The strand conjecture
reproduces the Lagrangians of the standard model and general relativity,
explains the number of generations and the particle spectrum,
deduces all Feynman diagrams and propagators,
explains the gauge groups U(1), SU(2) and SU(3),
explains the fundamental constants ab initio,
solves the hierarchy problem,
explains neutrino masses without a see-saw mechanism,
solves the strong CP problem,
predicts the validity of the standard model and of general relativity
up to the Planck scale without any intermediate energy scale,
implies that the weak interaction violates parity maximally,
explains the equality of proton and positron charge,
has no problems with anomalies,
predicts no issues with baryogenesis,
has no grand unification,
has no supersymmetry,
has no additional spatial dimensions,
has no inflation, no inflaton and no dilaton,
solves a number of black hole and singularity issues,
implies gravitational waves,
has no dark matter particles,
has a naturally small cosmological constant,
solves various problems about gauge theories,
answers Hilbert's sixth problem,
and explains the principle of least action.

*

**Particle tangles.**
Images of the three conjectured neutrino tangles:

Note the similarity of the electron neutrino tangle with three loose
strands. This is one reason for its low mass value.

Images of the conjectured tangles for the electron, the muon and the tau:

These tangles, together with the quark tangles and the elementary boson
tangles, appear to reproduce all Feynman diagrams of the standard model.
(Can you help producing 3d pictures that can be rotated by a html viewer?)

*

**Blog.**
The blog on research about fundamental physics
and tangles of strands tells more about general ideas, past mistakes,
objections, encountered difficulties, and progress.

*

**T-shirt.**
An important motivation has always
been the support for the ailing physics T-shirt industry.
Since decades, it has been desperate for new designs.

### Volume VI of Motion Mountain

**History.** A more extensive, more passionate, but also
older and less precise presentation is the original text on the strand
model. It was written as a *research* volume that continues the
adventure of the five *textbook* volumes.
The present edition has been updated with most results
from the above preprints, and it also presents and corrects the errors of the past:

Here is a preview:

It can also be found at https://www.scribd.com/document/11598480.